Vikash Chandra, Pratheesh Mankuzhy and Taru Sharma G.*
Background: The consistent, self-renewal capability and wide-ranging differentiation potential during specific physiologic conditions mark stem cells as a novel candidate not only for biomedical research and regenerative therapy but also as an alternative source in research related to life sciences. This vital and distinct characteristic of stem cells, enable them to offer unprecedented hope in treating many diseases and disorders, which are otherwise difficult to treat. Several efforts are still being undertaken to enhance the efficiency of MSCs for better therapeutic applications.
Objective: In recent past several studies have been conducted regarding isolation of stem cells from diverse sources and are being used clinically in veterinary regenerative therapy. But till date only a few systemic studies are available. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the findings from basic and applied research conducted in stem cell therapeutics with particular emphasis on animals.
Result: On the basis of their sources, stem cells can be classified as adult or embryonic stem (ES) cells. Physiologically, the ES cells have capability to differentiate into all body cells and develop into normal adult organism; whereas, adult stem cells serve as repair system by restoring damaged tissues of the body. The adult stem cells referred as Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be derived from various adult body organs whereas embryos give rise to embryonic stem cells. MSCs, passes unique property of proliferation, trans-differentiation and secretion of important biomolecules to create microenvironment; which is immunosuppressive and stimulate native MSCs of damaged tissue. MSCs being immunocompromised cells can be used in autologous as well as in allogenic mode.
Conclusion: In Veterinary therapeutics, MSCs equipped with engineering and pharmaceutical modifications offer a potentially candidate in the treatment of wound healing, nerve injury, bone/ligament injury etc. and also bear a great hope in improvement of udder health and milk production in animals.
Mesenchymal stem cell, immunosuppression, secretome, regenerative therapy, ageing, genetic engineering
Division of Physiology & Climatology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122(UP), Department of Physiology, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Wayanad, Lakkidi P O, Kerala, Division of Physiology & Climatology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122(UP)