Shima Tavakol, Hani Tavakol, Mo S. Alavijeh and Alexander Seifalian* Pages 1 - 15 ( 15 )
Nanomachines hold promise for the next generation of emerging technology; however, nanomachines are not a new concept. Viruses, nature’s nanomachines, have already existed for thousands of years. In 2019, the whole world had to come together to confront a life-threatening nanomachine named “SARS-CoV-2”, which causes COVID-19 illness. SARS-CoV-2, a smart nanomachine, attaches itself to the ACE2 and CD147 receptors present on the cell surfaces of the lungs, kidneys, heart, brain, intestines, testes, etc. and triggers pathogenesis. Cell entry triggers a cascade of inflammatory responses resulting in tissue damage, with the worst affected cases leading to death. SARS-CoV-2 influences several receptors and signalling pathways; therefore, finding a biomaterial that caps these signalling pathways and ligand sites is of interest. This research aimed to compare the similarities and differences between COVID-19 and its elderly sisters, MERS and SARS. Furthermore, we glanced at emerging therapeutics that carry potential in eliminating SARS-CoV-2, and the tissue damage it causes. Simple prophylactic and therapeutic strategies for the treatment of COVID- 19 infection have been put forward.
SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, signalling pathways, nanomachine, vaccine, drug repurposing, nanotechnology, nanomaterials.
Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, , Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, , Pharmidex Pharmaceutical Ltd., London, , Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine Commercialization Centre (NanoRegMed Ltd), London BioScience Innovation Centre, London