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Hippo Signaling: A Stress Response Pathway in Stem Cells

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 7 ]

Author(s):

Naciye Dilara Zeybek*, Eylem Baysal, Ozlem Bozdemir and Esra Buber   Pages 824 - 839 ( 16 )

Abstract:


The Hippo pathway, with its core components and the downstream transcriptional coactivators, controls the self-renewable capacity and stemness features of stem cells and serves as a stress response pathway by regulating proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The Hippo pathway interaction with other signaling pathways plays an important role in response to various stress stimuli arising from energy metabolism, hypoxia, reactive oxygen species, and mechanical forces. Depending on the energy levels, the Hippo pathway is regulated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), which in turn determines stem cell proliferation (cell survival and growth) and differentiation. Oxidative stress-driven by ROS production also affects the Hippo pathway with transcriptional changes through MST/YAP/FoxO pathway and leads to the activation of pro-apoptotic genes and eventually cell death. HIF1alpha/YAP signaling is critical for the long-term maintenance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under hypoxia. In this review, we present an overview of stem cell response to stress, including mechanical, hypoxia, metabolic and oxidative stress through the modulation of the Hippo pathway. The biological effects such as autophagy, apoptosis and senescence were discussed in the context of the Hippo pathway in stem cells.

Keywords:

Hippo pathway, YAP/TAZ, stress, stem cell, oxidative stress, hypoxia, autophagy.

Affiliation:

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Department of Stem Cell Sciences, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Department of Stem Cell Sciences, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara



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