Anita Sanghani, Mukai Chimutengwende-Gordon, Adetola Adesida and Wasim Khan Pages 451 - 455 ( 5 )
Physeal injuries may lead to the formation of a bone bridge resulting in limb length discrepancies and angular deformity in children. Current treatment of physeal injuries may be challenging. A number of strategies have been used to repair physeal defects with varying results. Biological regeneration using stem cells is therefore an attractive potential future option to repair physeal defects. Preclinical animal studies using stem cells have shown mixed results. Studies have investigated the use of various scaffolds including chitin, collagen and gelfoam. Significant progress has been made in discovering appropriate growth factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF- ), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) that could induce physeal repair and be used in combination with stem cell therapy. Advances have been made in the use of gene therapy to maintain sustainable delivery of growth factors to injury sites. This review discusses the current stem cell therapy available to repair physeal injuries.
Cartilage, chondrocytes, differentiation, growth plate, physis, scaffolds, stem cells.
University College London Institute of Orthopaedic and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex, HA7 4LP, United Kingdom.