Seidu A. Richard*, Sylvanus Kampo, Marian Sackey, Maite Esquijarosa Hechavarria, Alexis D. B. Buunaaim, Eugene Dogkotenge Kuugbee and Thomas Winsum Anabah Pages 189 - 198 ( 10 )
The world is currently engulfed with a viral disease with no cure. Thus, far, millions of people are infected with the virus across the length and breadth of the world, with thousands losing their lives each passing day. The WHO in February 2020 classified the virus as a coronavirus and the name Coronavirus-19 (CoV-19) was offered to the virus. The disease caused by the virus was termed coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is associated with elevation of several immune players as well as inflammatory factors which contribute to cytokine storms. Currently, the detection of CoV-19 RNA is through reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of suppressing several kinds of cytokines via the paracrine secretion system. Therefore, MSCs therapy could be game changer in the treatment of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, intravenous IG may be capable of suppressing the high expression of IL-6 by the CoV-19 resulting in lessen disease burden. Anti-inflammatory medications like, corticosteroids, tocilizumab, glycyrrhetinic acid, as well as etoposide may be very advantageous in decreasing the COVID-19 burden because their mode of action targets the cytokine storms initiated by the CoV-19. It is important to indicate that, these medications do not target the virus itself. Therefore, potent CoV-19 anti-viral medications are needed to completely cure patients with COVID-19. Furthermore, a vaccine is urgently needed to stop the spread of the virus. This review, therefore, elucidates the immune players in the management of COVID-19; focusing principally on MSCs and inflammatory mediators.
CoV-19, COVID-19, inflammation, immunotherapy, MSCs, pneumonia.
Department of Medicine, Princefield University, P. O. Box MA128, Ho, Ghana, Department of Anesthesia and Critical care, School of Medicine, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Department of Pharmacy, Ho Teaching Hospital, P.O. Box MA-374, Ho, Department of Anesthesia and Critical care, School of Medicine, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Health Science, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Department of Clinical Microbiology, School of Medicine and Health Science, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Department of Clinical Medicine, Habana Medical Services, Tamale