Daniele Avitabile, Alessandra Magenta, Andrea Lauri, Elisa Gambini, Gabriella Spaltro and Maria Cristina Vinci Pages 352 - 369 ( 18 )
Epigenetics harbours all regulatory information that, beyond nucleotide sequences, allows cells to “make decisions” throughout their lifetime in response to the external environment. The information can be transitory or relatively stable, and is even transmittable either to daughter cells or to the next generations through the germ line. Recent discoveries shed light on numerous connections between metabolites and epigenetic chromatin-modifying enzymes, providing a link between the metabolic state of the cell and epigenetics, and ultimately between metabolism, gene expression and cell fate. In this review, we discuss the possible connections between metabolism and epigenetic regulation of stem cell differentiation and self-renewal. Moreover, we describe pertinent literature that could explain how altered metabolic state and nutrition can contribute to disease development through epigenetic modifications. A special section is dedicated to the emerging link between the circadian clock, metabolic transcriptional regulation by epigenetic mechanisms and their implication in stem cell homeostasis.
Circadian rhythms, epigenetics, metabolism, microRNAs, nutrition, stem cells.
Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS. Via Parea, 4, I-20138, Milan, Italy.