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The Role of Bioreactors in Ligament and Tendon Tissue Engineering

[ Vol. 11 , Issue. 1 ]


James Mace, Andy Wheelton, Wasim S. Khan and Sanj Anand   Pages 35 - 40 ( 6 )


Bioreactors are pivotal to the emerging field of tissue engineering. The formation of neotissue from pluripotent cell lineages potentially offers a source of tissue for clinical use without the significant donor site morbidity associated with many contemporary surgical reconstructive procedures. Modern bioreactor design is becoming increasingly complex to provide a both an expandable source of readily available pluripotent cells and to facilitate their controlled differentiation into a clinically applicable ligament or tendon like neotissue. This review presents the need for such a method, challenges in the processes to engineer neotissue and the current designs and results of modern bioreactors in the pursuit of engineered tendon and ligament.


Bioreactors, flow perfusion, ligament, rotating wall, spinner flasks, tendon.


University College London Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Science, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, London, HA7 4LP, UK.

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